The term “common baldness” usually means male-pattern baldness, or permanent-pattern baldness. Male-pattern baldness is the most common cause of hair loss in men. Men who have this type of hair loss usually have inherited the trait. Men who start losing their hair at an early age tend to develop more extensive baldness. In male-pattern baldness, hair loss typically results in a receding hair line and baldness on the top of the head.
Madarosis is a clinical sign that has become pathognomonic of leprosy in countries like India. However, this apparently benign clinical sign has wider ramifications in many systemic and dermatological disorders. Hence, establishing a proper diagnosis and appropriate management is mandatory. Though management of the primary disease results in regrowth of eyebrows and eyelashes, many require surgical management. Thus, the management of a patient with madarosis requires a coordinated effort from the dermatologist, ophthalmologist, internist, and reconstructive surgeon.
Giorgos Tsetis: I am an entrepreneur and have an engineering background that allows me to think in strategic ways to solve complex problems. Of course, I did have this very personal experience. But, to be honest with you, getting into this category wasn't directly a choice, it felt more like destiny. I say that, because their are literally millions who suffer from what I was suffering from. Aside from being a model, I owned an engineering company in New York, and business was steadily growing. The tipping point came when I found out the University of Washington published research that said my issue could cause permanent sexual dysfunction without the specific drug I was taking. That's when I panicked, reached out to my business partner and dear friend, and we begun to dig deeper into the issue. As we started diving deep, we recognized there was a tremendous white space. 

Minoxidil: This medicine is applied to the scalp. It can stop hairs from getting thinner and stimulate hair growth on the top of the scalp. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved minoxidil to treat hair loss. It is the only hair re-growth product approved for men and women. A dermatologist may combine minoxidil with another treatment.
The hormonal process of testosterone converting to DHT, which then harms hair follicles, happens in both men and women. Under normal conditions, women have a minute fraction of the level of testosterone that men have, but even a lower level can cause DHT- triggered hair loss in women. And certainly when those levels rise, DHT is even more of a problem. Those levels can rise and still be within what doctors consider "normal" on a blood test, even though they are high enough to cause a problem. The levels may not rise at all and still be a problem if you have the kind of body chemistry that is overly sensitive to even its regular levels of chemicals, including hormones.
No one wants to lose their hair, but for a woman it is particularly distressing. While men can look perfectly presentable — even sexy — with their exposed scalp, no such options exist for the 30 million American women who grapple with thinning tresses. Dr. Maria Colavincenzo, a dermatologist at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, has a practice that specializes in preserving those precious strands — especially in cases of androgenetic alopecia, a hereditary condition that causes hair loss, mainly on the top and crown of the scalp. Without an appointment, she answered some of our questions:
This is a diverse group of rare disorders that destroy the hair follicle, replace it with scar tissue and cause permanent hair loss. The hair loss may be accompanied by severe itching, pain and burning, and may progress rapidly. In other cases, the hair loss is gradual, has no symptoms and is unnoticed for long periods. It is also sometimes known as scarring alopecia and can occur in otherwise healthy men and women of all ages.
MICHAEL REED, MD: Over-the-counter minoxidil, which is the brand Rogaine, is FDA approved. It's been shown to be effective in scientific studies. Propecia is the new drug on the block, and that probably is more effective. It's a pill that you take once a day, and that has been shown to slow down hair loss and grow hair in a significant number of individuals. Most of the other preparations that are heavily advertised or marketed are not proven to be effective.
Physicians such as dermatologists and plastic surgeons have long recommended essential vitamins and supplements for hair growth to women and men. Now read why top medical experts including Dr. Craig Ziering and Dr. Steven Dayan have been telling their patients for years about Viviscal hair growth supplements to help grow thicker, longer and healthier looking hair.
It is perfectly normal for people to shed 50 to 100 hairs per day. This generally doesn't cause noticeable thinning of scalp hair because new hair is growing in at the same time that hair is shedding. However, hair loss occurs when this hair growth cycle and shedding is disrupted or when the hair follicle becomes destroyed and replaced with scar tissue. Female pattern hair loss (androgenetic alopecia) is the most common form of hair loss in women. This occurs gradually and is caused by genetics (from either side of the family), age, and the action of a specific male hormone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT). This hormone is found in lesser amounts in women and it preys on the hair follicles, preventing them from receiving vital nutrients for proper hair follicle growth, leading to the hairs shrinking, and resulting in a shorter lifespan. Interestingly, DHT does not need to be elevated to generate hair loss. Estrogen, when lowered as commonly seen in menopause, creates a change in the ratio of male to female hormones, giving an edge to these male hormones. Compounded with the sensitivity of DHT to the hair follicles, heredity can affect the age at which a woman begins to lose her hair, as well as the rate of hair loss and the extent of baldness. 
It is known that during pregnancy, because of an increased level of estrogen, there is a tremendous growth of new hair. However, during menopause it is noticeable that the reduced level of estrogen hormone tends to cause hair loss. When the estrogen hormone levels tend to drop, the hair follicles fall under the influence of the male sex hormone or the testosterone, which cause the shortening of the growth phase of hair. Subsequently there is a noticeable hair loss. This hair loss caused due to the drop down of estrogen levels may cause patchy hair loss or complete baldness.
There are a couple of other reasons why soy is a great choice too. For one, it is really good for you, protecting your cardiovascular health by reducing your LDL cholesterol levels. For another, soy is an easy, cost-effective choice. Instead of searching everywhere for quality herbal supplements you are unfamiliar with, you can simply add some soy milk to your diet or eat some tofu.
Despite the name androgenetic alopecia, the exact role of hormones is uncertain. It is well known that androgens affect the growth of the scalp and body hair and even Hippocrates observed 2,400 years ago that eunuchs did not experience baldness (Yip et al., 2011). However, hyperandrogenism cannot be the only pathophysiologic mechanism for FPHL because the majority of women with FPHL neither have abnormal androgen levels nor do they demonstrate signs or symptoms of androgen excess (Atanaskova Mesinkovska and Bergfeld, 2013, Schmidt and Shinkai, 2015, Yip et al., 2011). Furthermore, cases have been reported in which FPHL developed in patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome or hypopituitarism with no detectable androgen levels (Cousen and Messenger, 2010, Orme et al., 1999).
Like with low thyroid, there can be a myriad of imbalances at play with PCOS related hair loss making it a complex issue that’s often written off as merely high testosterone. While androgen excess and hypersensitivity of the hair follicles to these hormones are part of the issue, these are other contributing factors to PCOS related hair loss as well:
A new entity variously called as trichodysplasia spinulosa,[128] trichodysplasia of immunosuppression,[129] and cyclosporine-induced folliculodystrophy[130] has been described in immunocompromised patients, usually organ transplant recipients on immunosuppression. It involves the development of alopecia predominantly of the face with indurated spinous papules. There is a profound loss of eyebrows[131] and sometimes eyelashes. The histopathologic picture is that of abnormal follicles with hyperkeratotic infundibula and absence of normal hair shafts. The inner root sheath epithelium showed proliferation in the cells and dystrophic trichohyaline granules. Electron microscopy of skin showed presence of intracellular viral particles.[132] This entity has lately been reported in immunosuppressive states in patients without organ transplantation such as leukemias and lymphoma.[133–136] van der Meijden et al. described the discovery of a new polyoma virus in a patient with trichodysplasia spinulosa.[131] Histopathological examination can reveal the diagnosis. A recent simple pull-test wherein the spicules can be plucked and examined under the microscope for inner root sheath keratinization has been described.[136] Some successful treatments described are cessation of cyclosporine therapy[130] and oral valganciclovir[137,138] and topical cidofovir.[131]
Since our founding more than 40 years ago, Hair Club’s unique story has been regularly featured in the media. And because we’re the trusted provider of all-proven hair loss solutions in North America, we continue to receive lots of coverage today. With your help, we’re still writing the story of Hair Club every day, so we welcome you to follow us and stay up to date with the latest Hair Club news, press releases and more.

Taking estrogen supplements as part of a hormone replacement therapy regime has its effects on your hair as well. Women can treat a type of hair loss called androgenic alopecia, associated with low estrogen and progesterone, by replacing these hormones artificially. Dosages of synthetic estrogen should be monitored regularly -- abnormal hair growth is a possible side effect of one kind of hormone replacement therapy, called esterified estrogens.


Last week, we schooled you on the foods and vitamins for long, healthy hair. Today, Kristin Dahl, a Los Angeles-based nutritionist and women’s wellness educator, is back again to talk about all things hormones and hair loss. Keep reading for Dahl's guide to maintaining optimum hormonal balance, how stress can mess with your mane, lock-block hair growth, and more. As the founder of The Women’s Wellness Collective and the holistic lifestyle hub, Dahl House Nutrition, Dahl knows what she's talking about so we'd take notes if we were you. 

Insulin regulation is also a big factor in hair health, as an imbalance can lead to various hormonal effects. Insulin helps to regulate blood sugar levels, which effects fat storage and hormone balance. Fat storage and hormone balance play a role in hair growth because fat storages will secrete excess estrogen in the body, and can desensitize hormone signals.  
So, if you have a similar paranoia—fear not! Losing strands is totally normal. But Dr. Wexler is quick to add that things like over-tweezing (it causes scarring to the follicles), waxing, severe weight-loss, stress, excessive touching, hormonal changes, and auto immune disease can cause irregular brow hair loss. If you believe your case may be extreme, it's best to see a specialist.
It’s natural for estrogen levels to fluctuate throughout a woman’s life, but drastic drops can disrupt the hair growth cycle and cause telogen effluvium. For example, during pregnancy, a woman’s estrogen levels are at their peak. Fewer hair follicles enter the telogen stage of the hair cycle, so hair looks thicker than usual. A few months after pregnancy, however, estrogen levels drop and the excess hair falls out. While totally normal, this type of telogen effluvium can be very upsetting for new mothers.
At Hair Club, you can be part of a well-established, stable company with more than 40 years of success. We are the industry leader in providing hair loss solutions. Our company culture is fun, fast-paced, empathetic and comes with a conscience. Not only do we make a difference in the lives of our clients every day, we also contribute to the community locally through our charitable and volunteer programs. If you’re enthusiastic, motivated and confident, we’d love to talk to you about joining our team of hair restoration professionals. 

This is an autoimmune disorder that is also known as “spot baldness” and can result in hair loss ranging from just one location (alopecia areata monolocularis) to the entire scalp (alopecia totalis), or to every hair on the entire body (Alopecia areata universalis). Although it is thought to be caused by hair follicles becoming dormant, what triggers alopecia areata is not exactly known. In most cases, the condition corrects itself.
Over Plucking: I know the temptation of tweezing your eyebrows when you don’t want to endure the pain of threading. But when you pluck your eyebrow hair, you’re pulling it out from the follicle and essentially damaging it. And repeatedly plucking your hair eyebrow hair can permanently damage your follicles over time and prevent them from producing new hair.

Thinning hair, noticeable bald spots, receding hair line, large clumps of hair showing up in your hair brush or shower drain, these are typically things you hear about from men, not women. More and more though, we are contacted by women who are experiencing hair loss who want to know if this is a sign of something wrong with their hormones and how they can fix the problem. Fortunately, hair loss is not a sign of infertility, but is a side effect of hormonal imbalance which can impact your fertility.
Traumas such as major surgery, poisoning and severe stress may cause a hair loss condition known as telogen effluvium, in which a large number of hairs enter the resting phase at the same time, causing shedding and subsequent thinning hair in men and women alike. The condition also presents as a side effect of chemotherapy. While targeting dividing cancer cells, this treatment also affects hair’s growth phase, with the result that almost 90% of hairs fall out soon after chemotherapy starts.
Well, maybe that’s a new adage from instagram, but it’s true all the same: eyebrows are the essential defining feature of every woman’s face. That’s exactly why eyebrow loss can feel like a death sentence to the beauty-conscious woman. With thick, lush eyebrows in style, eyebrow loss can feel more traumatizing than ever. Hair one day, gone the next!
Reduce stress. When you are stressed, your body starts shutting down processes that aren’t necessary for survival. This shutdown can occur with physical stressors, like surgery or an illness, and emotional stress, which often manifests as physical symptoms. Loss may occur up to three months after the stressful event and may take another three to grow again.[24]
It is known that estrogen plays a great role in reducing bodily hair, in promoting the growth of the hair on your head, controlling height, reducing the muscle mass, promoting the breast growth, keeping the skin smooth, keeping away from wrinkles, regulating menstrual cycle in women, preventing fatigue, keeping away depression etc. From all these it can be known that estrogen hormone is important for the overall health of an individual.
Sinclair Scale: The 5-point Sinclair Scale is a modified visual grading scale. Grade 1 is normal. This pattern is found in all girls prior to puberty, but in only half of women age 80 or over. Grade 2 shows a widening of the central part. Grade 3 shows a widening of the central part and thinning of the hair on either side of the central part. Grade 4 reveals the emergence of diffuse hair loss over the top of the scalp. Grade 5 indicates advanced hair loss. This grade is uncommon, occurring in less than 1% of women.
When the thyroid is under stress or poorly nourished—the thyroid is highly dependent on optimal levels of vitamins and nutrients to function optimally—it starts to focus its efforts on supporting the bodily processes (like breathing and regulating heart rate) that support and sustain life—and it stops paying as much attention to less vital functions, like hair growth.
Madarosis is the hallmark of lepromatous leprosy. It was reported in 76% of patients with multibacillary leprosy.[76] Bilateral symmetric cicatricial madarosis occurs in lepromatous leprosy due to histiocytic infiltration of hair follicles[77,78] [Figure 4]. It occurs in multibacillary leprosy after at least 5 to 10 years of untreated disease.[79] Loss or atrophy of the eyelashes may follow. Madarosis adds to the cosmetic disfigurement caused by leprosy. Absence of madarosis is a good prognostic sign in long-standing cases.[80] Unilateral madarosis may occur in tuberculoid leprosy due to the facial patch in the eyebrow region. In tuberculoid leprosy, madarosis occurs due to granulomatous infiltration of hair follicles leading to their destruction.
There is pilosebaceous inflammation[45] with both scarring and non-scarring alopecia depending on the degree of inflammation. Most commonly, there is involvement of the head and neck, though widespread involvement is also seen. Eyebrow loss is a prominent finding and may be the presenting symptom when the eyebrow region is involved in the acute benign form of follicular mucinosis.[46]
There is also a different in the form of 5AR enzyme (5 alpha reductase) found on the facial hair follicles vs. the scalp hair follicles. This enzyme converts testosterone into that more problematic DHT. Type I DHT is found in sebaceous glands on the face and genital area whereas Type II is found in hair follicles of the scalp. Type II DHT is typically more of a problem in men, but Type II is increased in disorders with high testosterone like PCOS.
It’s natural for estrogen levels to fluctuate throughout a woman’s life, but drastic drops can disrupt the hair growth cycle and cause telogen effluvium. For example, during pregnancy, a woman’s estrogen levels are at their peak. Fewer hair follicles enter the telogen stage of the hair cycle, so hair looks thicker than usual. A few months after pregnancy, however, estrogen levels drop and the excess hair falls out. While totally normal, this type of telogen effluvium can be very upsetting for new mothers. 

For other women, the problem with estrogen dominance is that they’re also experiencing lower levels of progesterone relative to estrogen—and progesterone helps protect hair follicles from the hair-thinning effects of testosterone, DHT, and estrogen. Evidence suggests that progesterone may act as an aromatase inhibitor and other research suggests that the genes involved in aromatase activity are implicated in female hair loss.
These important micronutrients, which are all essential for hair health, are part of my Balance Supplements. And even if you eat a healthy, phytonutrient rich diet, you might not have optimal levels of the vitamins and minerals you need to promote hair health. Environmental factors beyond our control, from the mineral-depleted soil in which most of our food is now grown to shifts in growing practices that have reduced the amount of vitamins and minerals in various foods, can leave us eating a picture-perfect diet and still deficient in certain micronutrients.

“When I went in for my Bosley consultation, my senior counselor was the one who walked me through the procedure. He also had had the procedure done, and his results were phenomenal. And I was thinking, ‘Wow, if I can get that, that’s what I’m looking for.’ He really got it — he understood me. He understood what I went through, and that was really important to me.


Also new is the HairMax Laser Comb. It's a red light therapy hairbrush-like device that increases circulation and the biological march that makes hair. It's only approved in men (though some women are using it) and in my experience, is not as good as minoxidil. But in one study, 45% of users reported improvement after eight weeks, and 90% saw improvement after 16 weeks.
Medicines may also help slow or prevent the development of common baldness. One medicine, minoxidil (brand name: Rogaine), is available without a prescription. It is applied to the scalp. Both men and women can use it. Another medicine, finasteride (brand name: Propecia) is available with a prescription. It comes in pills and is only for men. It may take up to 6 months before you can tell if one of these medicines is working.
Estrogen and combined oral contraceptive (COC) drugs with estrogen or progestogen have been reported as effective, but data are limited (Adenuga et al., 2012, Raudrant and Rabe, 2003, Scheinfeld, 2008). They are thought to function through several mechanisms. Both components of COC drugs increase the levels of sex-hormone-binding globulin (Schindler, 2013). They also send negative feedback signals that suppress the hypothalamic secretion of gonadotropin and releases the hormone and pituitary secretion of the luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones, which results in a decreased androgen production (Gilman et al., 1990, Varothai and Bergfeld, 2014). These actions decrease androgen secretion from the ovary and the quantity of free, biologically active androgens, which reduces their effects on the hair follicles (Schindler, 2013). Our practice when prescribing COC drugs is a combination of ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg plus drospirenone 3 mg. Drospirenone is an analogue of spironolactone. This treatment combination is approved by the FDA for the treatment of acne but not alopecia.
There’s no doubt that estrogen and hair loss are connected, but there are certain factors that determine how much of an effect estrogen levels have on your hair. As one of the main visible measures of your health, hair growth is often one of the first areas affected when hormones are off-balance. Let’s take a look at the links between estrogen hormonal imbalance and hair loss.
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