A new entity variously called as trichodysplasia spinulosa, trichodysplasia of immunosuppression, and cyclosporine-induced folliculodystrophy has been described in immunocompromised patients, usually organ transplant recipients on immunosuppression. It involves the development of alopecia predominantly of the face with indurated spinous papules. There is a profound loss of eyebrows and sometimes eyelashes. The histopathologic picture is that of abnormal follicles with hyperkeratotic infundibula and absence of normal hair shafts. The inner root sheath epithelium showed proliferation in the cells and dystrophic trichohyaline granules. Electron microscopy of skin showed presence of intracellular viral particles. This entity has lately been reported in immunosuppressive states in patients without organ transplantation such as leukemias and lymphoma.[133–136] van der Meijden et al. described the discovery of a new polyoma virus in a patient with trichodysplasia spinulosa. Histopathological examination can reveal the diagnosis. A recent simple pull-test wherein the spicules can be plucked and examined under the microscope for inner root sheath keratinization has been described. Some successful treatments described are cessation of cyclosporine therapy and oral valganciclovir[137,138] and topical cidofovir.
Hypothyroidism, or an underactive thyroid gland, adversely affects scalp and body hair growth. Thinning of the eyebrows can be a late sign of hypothyroidism. Other symptoms of hypothyroidism include chronic fatigue, weakness, constipation, weight gain and skin dryness. Treatment of hypothyroidism with thyroid hormone replacement medication typically leads to regrowth of lost eyebrow hair.
Insulin, that helper hormone in charge of regulating blood sugar levels, also affects a number of different body processes, including fat storage, heart health and, you guessed it, hair growth. One study published in the European Journal of Cardiovascular Risk found that women with some markers of insulin resistance have a greater risk for androgenic alopecia (AGA), or female pattern baldness.
Male pattern hair loss has been established as androgen-dependent because it is associated with changes in the androgen receptor and responds to antiandrogen therapy (Ellis et al., 2002). With FPHL, genes that encode aromatase, which converts testosterone to estradiol, are also implicated (Yazdabadi et al., 2008, Yip et al., 2009). The process of androgen biosynthesis is depicted in Figure 1.
Lichen planopilaris and frontal fibrosing alopecia inflammatory conditions, in which the inflammation destroys the hair follicle, can cause a scar or permanent hair loss (usually present as red patches with redness and scale around each hair follicle). In the very advanced stages, they may appear as smooth, bald patches where the hair follicles have been destroyed. Androgenetic hair loss is another non-scarring type. The most common type of hair loss, it is due to the complex interplay of genes, hormones, and age.
For other women, the problem with estrogen dominance is that they’re also experiencing lower levels of progesterone relative to estrogen—and progesterone helps protect hair follicles from the hair-thinning effects of testosterone, DHT, and estrogen. Evidence suggests that progesterone may act as an aromatase inhibitor and other research suggests that the genes involved in aromatase activity are implicated in female hair loss.
Infestation with the mite D. folliculorum which inhabits the eyelashes is well known. Two species are known to inhabit human beings—D. folliculorum and Demodex brevis. It might either be asymptomatic or may cause symptoms of blepharitis. Kemal et al. report an overall prevalence of 27.4% in their study group. Gao et al. have reported a 100% prevalence of the mite when there is cylindrical dandruff. Patients with demodicosis can develop madarosis.
What’s more likely is that telogen effluvium is at play (again). In addition to hormone fluctuations, this type of hair loss happens when there is a drastic dip in protein in the diet or sudden weight loss. For example, if you are sick and can only consume liquids for a month. “If you have protein levels that drop dramatically, your hair follicles go into hibernation, and you can see sudden acute hair loss that shows up three to six months later,” says Dr. Katta.
However, the effects of alopecia reach far beyond symptoms of depression and include anxiety, obsessions, dissatisfaction with one’s appearance, and low self-esteem (Al-Mutairi and Eldin, 2011, Dlova et al., 2016, Hunt and McHale, 2005, Schmidt et al., 2001). There can be significant disturbance in a patient’s social life because they may change their hair style, clothing, or avoid social meetings (Al-Mutairi and Eldin, 2011). One study reported that 40% of surveyed women described marital problems and 63% had career-related issues that they ascribed to their hair loss (Hunt and McHale, 2005). These effects seem to occur regardless of patients’ age, race, or degree of hair loss (Dlova et al., 2016, Hunt and McHale, 2005, Schmidt et al., 2001). Another study of more than 200 women found that this psychologic morbidity occurs with equal frequency in women whose hair is typically covered by a headscarf (Erol et al., 2012).
Estrogen is the dominant female sex hormone which is essential for the development of female characteristics. It can however be also found in men as well, but in lower quantities. Likewise there are also few quantities of the male sex hormones Testosterone, in female body. Estrogen is not a single hormone but actually a group of female sex hormones which include estradiol, estriol and estrone hormones. Estrogen is made in the ovaries and to a lesser extent in other bodily tissues.
Postpartum hair loss is related to the drop in estrogen experienced after giving birth. During pregnancy, the body has higher levels of estrogen (and progesterone) and estrogen increases hair’s “resting phase,” or the time hair stays on your head before naturally falling out (which is what accounts for the 100 or so hairs that healthy heads shed every day). When estrogen drops after pregnancy, all the hair that had been “resting” starts to shed. Post-pregnancy hair loss is usually temporary, lasting for several months.
Other drugs commonly attributed to causing madarosis are miotics, anticoagulants, anti-cholesterol drugs, antithyroid drugs, propranolol, valproic acid, boric acid, and bromocriptine.[21,99] Anticoagulants in high doses have been found to produce loss of scalp, pubic, axillary, and facial hair with loss of eyebrows after a latent period of a few weeks of treatment with dextran and heparin. Propranolol can cause diffuse alopecia along with loss of eyebrows due to telogen effluvium, usually after three months of therapy. Loss of medial aspect of eyebrows can be seen in fetuses exposed to valproic acid. Diffuse alopecia including that of eyebrows has been described due to chronic ingestion of mouthwashes containing boric acid. There was complete reversal following stopping the practice. Levodopa has been noted to cause severe diffuse alopecia within three months of daily use. Hair loss can occur soon after starting topical minoxidil therapy (due to detachment of club hairs following resting hairs reentering anagen), and after cessation of therapy (due to telogen effluvium).
Giorgos Tsetis: In the beginning, we left three factories because we didn't feel confident that they could do the job at our standard. These type of factories are sourcing the ingredients for you, but you have no clue where these ingredients are coming from. You don't know the efficacy, if they're clinically tested, and what about absorption? As a company, we decided to identify these root triggers that play a role in disrupting the hair growth cycle, then rigorously tested how we can target them and what specific ingredients solve for each trigger. Then, we developed individual partnerships with top suppliers all over the world that specialized in single ingredients that actually have that efficacy. We decided to source our own ingredients because we wanted to control the entire process. At least nine of the ten companies we consulted with said we couldn't do that, because the ingredients we chose to use were incredibly expensive. That's one main reason others can't do the work we do. For example, we purchase our primary ingredient for $600 per kilo, and you can buy the standard version of that ingredient in China for $30 per kilo. Same ingredients, but ours is clinically tested and proven to be effective. We only use patented ingredients, which made others think we're crazy, but creating the absolute best product is our top priority.
Mistakenly thought to be an exclusively male disease, women make up a significant percentage of hair loss sufferers all around the world. Forty percent of women have visible hair loss by the time they are age 40. After menopause, that number increases even more. Hair loss in women can be absolutely devastating for self-confidence, self-image and emotional well-being. Although it is not a life threatening disease and sometimes underestimated by physicians, hair loss can take an emotional toll that directly affects physical health. Hair is an important part of woman’s face and beauty, therefore it is not easy for any woman to face changes that affect the quality and especially the quantity of her hair. Hair loss in women is a serious life-altering condition that shouldn’t be ignored and has to be diagnosed and treated in the best possible way.
Contrary to popular belief, hair does not grow continuously but actually grows in cycles. It starts at the follicles which are embedded in the skin and the visible part, the shaft, is a consequence of active growth at the follicles over time. The living part of the hair in the skin has blood and nerve supply while the hair shaft is made up of dead cells and protein and does not have a blood or nerve supply. Therefore it can be easily cut without any bleeding or pain.
Thyroid hormone receptors were detected in both dermal and epithelial compartments of the human pilosebaceous unit. T4 and T3 decrease the apoptosis of hair follicles and T4 prolongs the duration of anagen in vitro. Thyroidectomy delays initiation of anagen. Administration of thyroxine advances anagen, initiation of which is however delayed once toxic doses are given. Therefore, ratio of telogen to anagen hairs is increased in hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism. Thus, the hair follicles are affected in thyroid disorders, and madarosis is caused due to disturbances in hair cell kinetics. Hypothyroidism is associated with generalized hair loss probably due to coarse, dull, and brittle hair with reduced diameter. The eyebrows and eyelashes may also be lost. Loss of lateral one-third of eyebrows known as Hertoghe sign is a characteristic sign of hypothyroidism. Some people also refer to it as Queen Anne's sign, after Anne of Denmark whose portrait with shortened eyebrows has been interpreted by some as indicative of the presence of goiter, even though such a fact has not been proved by any known sources of information. Madarosis may even be the presenting sign in hyperthyroidism. In hyperthyroidism, there is thinning with breaking off and shortening of hair. Madarosis can also occur in hypopituitarism, hypoparathyroidism, and hyperparathyroidism.