Androstenedione, which is mostly produced in the ovary and adrenal glands, is converted to testosterone by 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Testosterone then circulates throughout the body to reach its target tissues. Androgen-metabolizing enzymes have been found in many parts of the hair follicle (Table 1; Bolognia et al., 2012). The presence of those enzymes makes the pilosebaceous unit a site of androgen metabolism and synthesis (Fazekas and Sandor, 1973). Circulating free testosterone either binds to intracellular androgen receptors in the hair bulb and dermal papilla, which facilitates miniaturization of the follicle, or is metabolized into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase. DHT then binds the same receptor but with much greater affinity (Kaufman, 2002, Levy and Emer, 2013). Of the androgens depicted in Figure 1, only DHT and testosterone bind to androgen receptors (Burger, 2002).
EYES AND VISIONEARS, NOSE AND THROATSKIN, HAIR, NAILSHEART AND VESSELSKIDNEYS AND URINARY TRACTBLOOD AND IMMUNITYLIVER AND GALLBLADDERLUNGS AND AIRWAYSUPPER AND LOWER LIMBWOMEN’S HEALTH AND PREGNANCYWOMEN’S HEALTHKIDS HEALTHMEN’S HEALTHABCD – FIRST AID: INJURIES, POISONINGNEWBORNS BABIESHORMONES AND METABOLISMMEDICATION, SUPPLEMENTSMEDICAL TERMINOLOGYNUTRITIONSURGERY AND OTHER PROCEDURES
Liver support: is necessary to eliminate unneeded wastes from the body. Everything we take in is processed through the liver and toxins are broken down into water soluble byproducts so they can be moved into the intestine and pulled into the stool for elimination. Foods like cruciferous vegetables (kale, broccoli, collard greens) and lemon support the liver detox pathways. Herbs like milk thistle, dandelion root, and burdock root help to support  liver cleansing.
Complete Belgravia's online consultation if you are unable to visit one of our London clinics. The questionnaire should take no more than 10 minutes to complete and will provide our hair loss specialists with all the information required to recommend an effective course of home-use treatment. For those who live in or around London, we always recommend a clinical consultation.

Alopecia areata: Researchers believe that this is an autoimmune disease. Autoimmune means the body attacks itself. In this case, the body attacks its own hair. This causes smooth, round patches of hair loss on the scalp and other areas of the body. People with alopecia areata are often in excellent health. Most people see their hair re-grow. Dermatologists treat people with this disorder to help the hair re-grow more quickly.

Hair loss in women isn't always as straightforward as it is in most men. In men, about 95 percent of all cases are caused by male pattern baldness. In women, however, hair loss can be triggered by a multitude of conditions and circumstances. During the consultation, Dr. Yaker utilizes specialized hair and scalp scanning technology to assess the distribution of hair loss, hair thickness, and how much hair is present in a particular area. It is important to note, that for women, a proper diagnosis begins with a process of elimination. More than one cause for the hair loss may coexist and need to be recognized or excluded. A comprehensive medical history, which includes a list of all medications, history of hair loss, a thorough scalp exam, a discussion of medical and skin disorders, and a complete nutritional evaluation will be needed. Blood work analysis may be required, and a scalp biopsy may also be performed if the cause of hair loss is uncertain or there is a concern for scarring alopecia.
Spending over a decade rigorously researching natural alternatives to a drug that negatively impacted his libido for seven years, Tsetis and his team reverse engineered the formula of a leading pharmaceutical only using patented sourced supplements. What they produced was a tested and proven hair health product that is now helping millions across the country avoid or actively cure for hair loss.
The eyebrows are two-arched eminences of skin situated above the orbital regions.[3,4] The hairs of the eyebrows are short, thick. and stiff and are set obliquely. The diameter of eyebrow hair is normally thinner than scalp hair in Asians, and the scalp hair in thinner in Caucasians.[5] The eyebrows can be roughly divided into three parts. The medial third is usually below the orbital margin with the hairs in this region oriented vertically. The middle third lies along the orbital margin with hairs oriented obliquely or horizontally. The lateral third usually lies above the orbital margin.[3] Eyebrow hair normally tends to be less dense laterally than medially; thus, hair loss from any cause is apt to be more obvious in the lateral portion.[6]
There’s a reason why we’re the leading provider of hair loss solutions in North America. Trust. Many of our 1,100+ licensed cosmetologists and hair loss experts started where you are—as a client themselves. So we truly understand what hair loss feels like and what it takes to get your hair back. It’s why you can trust that we’ll walk you through every step of your hair restoration journey, from consultation and analysis to solution and maintenance. We’ll listen to you and make sure your Hair Club experience is everything you want it to be. We’re here for you, and that makes all the difference.

Giorgos Tsetis: I am an entrepreneur and have an engineering background that allows me to think in strategic ways to solve complex problems. Of course, I did have this very personal experience. But, to be honest with you, getting into this category wasn't directly a choice, it felt more like destiny. I say that, because their are literally millions who suffer from what I was suffering from. Aside from being a model, I owned an engineering company in New York, and business was steadily growing. The tipping point came when I found out the University of Washington published research that said my issue could cause permanent sexual dysfunction without the specific drug I was taking. That's when I panicked, reached out to my business partner and dear friend, and we begun to dig deeper into the issue. As we started diving deep, we recognized there was a tremendous white space.


This is a diverse group of rare disorders that destroy the hair follicle, replace it with scar tissue and cause permanent hair loss. The hair loss may be accompanied by severe itching, pain and burning, and may progress rapidly. In other cases, the hair loss is gradual, has no symptoms and is unnoticed for long periods. It is also sometimes known as scarring alopecia and can occur in otherwise healthy men and women of all ages.


Well, maybe that’s a new adage from instagram, but it’s true all the same: eyebrows are the essential defining feature of every woman’s face. That’s exactly why eyebrow loss can feel like a death sentence to the beauty-conscious woman. With thick, lush eyebrows in style, eyebrow loss can feel more traumatizing than ever. Hair one day, gone the next!
The role of estrogen and progestogen drugs in the treatment of hair loss and growth is also unclear. Estrogen is made when androstenedione or testosterone are modified by the enzyme aromatase. It is synthesized in the ovary and other peripheral tissues and then travels to its receptors, some of which are located in scalp hair follicles (Thornton et al., 2003a, Thornton et al., 2003b). At the scalp follicle, estradiol has been reported to induce aromatase activity (Hoffmann et al., 2002). Estrogen has been hypothesized to have a protective role against hair loss on the basis of the observation that patients with lower estrogen levels during menopause, postpartum, or treatment with aromatase inhibitors or selective estrogen receptor modulators are more likely to develop FPHL (Atanaskova Mesinkovska and Bergfeld, 2013, Park et al., 2014). Another supporting observation is that in the frontal hairline of women, which tends to be spared with FPHL, there is a higher level of aromatase enzyme when compared with the rest of the scalp (Levy and Emer, 2013). This variation in hair loss could be the result of locally increased levels of estradiol or decreased levels of testosterone and DHT that is secondary to greater amounts of conversion.
Although these statistics would suggest a more collective effort amongst industry leaders to proactively find a way to fix this problem, the trends have revealed the opposite. Due to an ecosystem of loose regulations, cheap supplement sourcing, and a business model built on overselling to a dependent audience – the industry has been fueled by driving profits instead of solving problems. When one Wilhelmina model noticed he was quickly losing hair at a pivotal point in his career, the search for an effective product revealed the surprising lack of safe, natural and healthy solutions. 

Also called “chastetree,” Vitex is an herb which is typically prescribed to treat estrogen dominance. It seems to be recommended as a remedy for especially low levels of estrogen as well however, and does seem to have a general balancing effect on the overall ratio of estrogen to progesterone. Vitex’s balancing effect is thought to result from the stimulation of dopamine production.
Eyebrow thinning that manifests in irregular patches, especially accompanied by red and itchy skin, may indicate atopic dermatitis. This condition—commonly called eczema—can occur just about anywhere on the body and is usually hereditary. People with atopic dermatitis may be more sensitive to topical irritants, but eczema just from topical irritants is called allergic contact dermatitis or irritant contact dermatitis. While you wait on the appointment with your dermatologist, you can help ease eczema around the eyebrows by switching to mild soaps or a soap-free facial cleanser, and applying an intensive facial moisturizer within three minutes after bathing.
Every child deserves the opportunity to just be a kid—to fit in and feel normal. Kids experiencing hair loss don’t get that chance. That’s why we offer the Hair Club For Kids® program. Hair Club For Kids provides non-surgical hair replacement services, completely free of charge, to children ages 6-17 who are suffering from hair loss. These services are available at all Hair Club locations throughout North America to help reach as many kids as possible. Call 800-269-7384 for details.
Hormones are cyclical. Testosterone levels in some men drop by 10 percent each decade after thirty. Women's hormone levels decline as menopause approaches and drop sharply during menopause and beyond. The cyclic nature of both our hair and hormones is one reason hair loss can increase in the short term even when you are experiencing a long-term slowdown of hair loss (and a long-term increase in hair growth) while on a treatment that controls hair loss.

Stress: Emotional and physiological stress can trigger a few hair loss conditions that can affect your eyebrows. Telogen effluvium, for instance, can cause your hair to shed. Then there’s trichotillomania, which is a psychiatric condition caused by stress that is characterized by the urge to pull out your own hair (which could be from your eyebrows, eyelashes or scalp).

So, if you have a similar paranoia—fear not! Losing strands is totally normal. But Dr. Wexler is quick to add that things like over-tweezing (it causes scarring to the follicles), waxing, severe weight-loss, stress, excessive touching, hormonal changes, and auto immune disease can cause irregular brow hair loss. If you believe your case may be extreme, it's best to see a specialist.
Around 30 million U.S. women will experience hereditary hair loss, or female pattern baldness (androgenetic alopecia), while others will struggle with situational hair loss, brought on by medical conditions, medications, poor health and nutrition, environmental factors such as smoking and sun damage, or even from adverse reactions to hair care products or treatments.
Visit your doctor. First and foremost, you need to understand the cause of your thinning brows in order to know how to address them. Your doctor can check for underlying conditions like hypothyroidism, hormonal imbalance and vitamin deficiency. Your doctor can also point you in the right direction for products that can help regrow or mask thinning hair. Visit a dermatologist for targeted advice and cosmetic options that are available to you.
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Some medications have side effects that include hair loss. Talk to your doctor if you are experiencing significant hair loss and you think that your medication might be the cause. Your doctor might be able to switch you over to another type of medicine without any reported side effects. Don’t stop taking your medications until you’ve spoken with your doctor, as this could be dangerous for your health.
The WHI was a very large, very prominent long-term study which looked at the health effects of HRT. While the study did find a few benefits (women who used HRT had fewer hip or bone fractures and were less likely to develop colorectal cancer), it found a number of risks, including an increased chance of heart attack, stroke, cancer, and blood clots.

Research suggests that hair loss during menopause is the result of a hormonal imbalance. Specifically, it’s related to a lowered production of estrogen and progesterone. These hormones help hair grow faster and stay on the head for longer periods of time. When the levels of estrogen and progesterone drop, hair grows more slowly and becomes much thinner. A decrease in these hormones also triggers an increase in the production of androgens, or a group of male hormones. Androgens shrink hair follicles, resulting in hair loss on the head. In some cases, however, these hormones can cause more hair to grow on the face. This is why some menopausal women develop facial “peach fuzz” and small sprouts of hair on the chin.


Trichotillomania is a hair pulling disorder associated with anxiety, stress, depression, boredom and frustration. It is where a person manually removes hairs with their finger, either a few strands throughout the day or sometimes many strands at one time during an emotional outburst. This behavior is usually a means of coping with stress or emotional turmoil. However, it can sometimes become a habit that is difficult to break. The eyebrows is a commonly targeted area as is the scalp.
It is perfectly normal for people to shed 50 to 100 hairs per day. This generally doesn't cause noticeable thinning of scalp hair because new hair is growing in at the same time that hair is shedding. However, hair loss occurs when this hair growth cycle and shedding is disrupted or when the hair follicle becomes destroyed and replaced with scar tissue. Female pattern hair loss (androgenetic alopecia) is the most common form of hair loss in women. This occurs gradually and is caused by genetics (from either side of the family), age, and the action of a specific male hormone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT). This hormone is found in lesser amounts in women and it preys on the hair follicles, preventing them from receiving vital nutrients for proper hair follicle growth, leading to the hairs shrinking, and resulting in a shorter lifespan. Interestingly, DHT does not need to be elevated to generate hair loss. Estrogen, when lowered as commonly seen in menopause, creates a change in the ratio of male to female hormones, giving an edge to these male hormones. Compounded with the sensitivity of DHT to the hair follicles, heredity can affect the age at which a woman begins to lose her hair, as well as the rate of hair loss and the extent of baldness. 

There can be any number of different factors contributing to your hair loss. If you’re reading this and thinking, “well I have that and that, and am going through that,” then you may already have an idea of what is a contributing cause for you. You may already be doing much of what is suggested here and may learn of additional ideas to consider trying.


Toxic alopecia occurs when there is a disruption of hair growth in the anagen phase. This usually occurs following chemotherapy and radiotherapy.[94] Radiotherapy for various types of ocular tumors, eyelid and choroidal tumors have been reported to produce madarosis.[95–97] Hair loss due to radiation is usually reversible, but may be permanent when the dose of radiation is in the range of 50 to 60 Gy.[94]
Telogen effluvium is a condition where a large number of hair follicles enter the resting phase known as telogen. As these hairs may fall off, it is not replaced with new hair at the same area and this leads to a bald patch on the eyebrows. A number of hormonal factors (like with hypothyroidism and pregnancy) may be responsible and it is also related to certain diseases, nutritional deficiencies, chronic medication use and even metal toxicity. It is now also known that stress can push many more hair follicles than normal into this phase.
It is perfectly normal for people to shed 50 to 100 hairs per day. This generally doesn't cause noticeable thinning of scalp hair because new hair is growing in at the same time that hair is shedding. However, hair loss occurs when this hair growth cycle and shedding is disrupted or when the hair follicle becomes destroyed and replaced with scar tissue. Female pattern hair loss (androgenetic alopecia) is the most common form of hair loss in women. This occurs gradually and is caused by genetics (from either side of the family), age, and the action of a specific male hormone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT). This hormone is found in lesser amounts in women and it preys on the hair follicles, preventing them from receiving vital nutrients for proper hair follicle growth, leading to the hairs shrinking, and resulting in a shorter lifespan. Interestingly, DHT does not need to be elevated to generate hair loss. Estrogen, when lowered as commonly seen in menopause, creates a change in the ratio of male to female hormones, giving an edge to these male hormones. Compounded with the sensitivity of DHT to the hair follicles, heredity can affect the age at which a woman begins to lose her hair, as well as the rate of hair loss and the extent of baldness. 
Hormone Replacement Therapy: You may be advised to go for hormone replacement therapy or may take supplementary estrogen in case your doctor suspects that the hair loss is caused because of low or lack of estrogen hormone. These supplements may either be taken orally or may be applied topically to the skin as a gel. However it must be mentioned that not all women are benefited with this type of treatment for low estrogen levels causing hair loss.
Most of us look at the eyebrows as a patch of hair that has an aesthetic purpose and it is often shaped for cosmetic purposes. Although the exact purpose of the eyebrows is not conclusively understood, it is believed to be prevent water or sweat from falling on to the eyes itself. For most people its function is of little concern compared to its cosmetic purpose. As with hair anywhere on the body, eyebrow hair and the follicles from where it arises can be prone to the same diseases and disorders which may lead to hair loss..
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